In-text citations show the reader the exact source of the information you consulted in the essay or speech you are writing. The citations should match the sources displayed in the References page. References cited within the text must appear in the References list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works. (Personal Communications and classical works are cited in the text only and are not included in the References list).
There are two types of in-text citations used in APA style, parenthetical and narrative:
Author last name and date are enclosed in parentheses after a summary of cited information.
Use commas and ampersand (&) to connect authors’ names in parenthetical citations.
"..."(Author last name & Author last name, date, p. number). Example: "..." (Jones & Smith, 2000, p 14).
Citation information is incorporated into the sentence of cited information.
Use commas along with the word and to connect authors’ names in narrative citations at the end of the descriptive sentences and before the examples.
".... said Author and Author (date, p. number). Example: "... said Jones and Smith (2000, p 14).
Note: If there are 3 or more authors for an in-text citation, list et al. after the first author. Do not list the rest of the authors. (List up to 20 in the reference list citation, however).
Note: APA rules say to use a page number for a direct quote, but they are not required for a paraphrase.
Note: For more information on using direct quotes in the text, consult Table 8.2 of the APA Style Guide.
What follows below are examples utilizing different Works Cited sources and how they would be listed for an in-text citation.
Author's name in text (paraphrase):
According to Fisher (2019), leaders from the upper echelon of society provided a check on each other's actions and behaviors.
Author's name in text (with quote):
Fisher (2019) states,"Proximity...produces a portable method for reading literature and history together" (p. 13).
Note: An ellipsis (...) indicates that words from the original text were omitted in the quote displayed.
Author's name in the text, with only part of the sentence referencing the author's ideas:
Fisher (2019) notes that many working women dealt with internal strife because they "and their allies were already on the defense" (p. 13).
Quote longer than 40 words:
Women entering the work force, even on a limited basis, had a large impact on society:
Working girls' clubs were structured around the pedagogical value of contrast between wage earners and the leisure class,
virtuous and immoral working women, the refined and the fallen, and they aimed to publicize the similarities and distinctions among
women by linking cross-class sociability to print culture. Though riven with unresolved conflicts at the nexus of gender, race, and
especially class--or perhaps because it was riven with such conflicts--the movement sought to create a new social taxonomy of
white working women at a transitional moment in U.S. modernity. (Fisher, 2019, p. 77)
Note: In-Text Citation Examples when 2 or more works by the same author are included in the Works Cited page. If the year is different as above proceed as normal. If the author and dates are the same, include a lower case letter after the year to differentiate. Example: (Wharton, 1994a) and (Wharton, 1994b). See section 9.46 in the APA Style Guide for more information.
"Her discretions interested him almost as much as her imprudences" (Wharton, 1994, p.25).
"No expense had been spared on the setting, which was acknowledged to be beautiful..." (Wharton, 1996, p. 32).
Note: If no page numbers are listed for the source, provide a paragraph number. (Count the paragraphs manually, if needed.) For more information on sources without page numbers, refer to section 8.28 in the APA Style Guide.
*In-text citation example when an article is listed by title on the references page because no author is displayed:
"Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy" (Diabetes: Symptoms and causes, 2020, par.1).
*In-text citation example of a poem with line-breaks in-text. (Fewer than 40 words)
In the sonnet "Silence," the facets of quiet are clearly described: "There is a two-fold Silence--sea and shore--/Body and soul" (Poe, 1837/2001, p. 38).
Note: One forward slash (/) indicates a line break.
Note: In this example, two dates are listed in the in-text citation so the original publication date is also noted. See Section 8.15 in the APA Style Guide for more information on translate, reprinted, republished and reissued dates.
Note:If you’re using more than two lines from a poem, present it as a block quote as it appears in the original source. Following APA rules, the citation comes after the punctuation of the quote.
Note: See APA Style sections 8.26 for more information on short quotations (fewer than 40 words).
Paraphrasing is used as a way to show you understand what another author states. However, you must rephrase the information in your own words. You cannot just change a few words and claim that you successfully paraphrased the information. Also, be sure to include an in-text citation to the original work you consulted.
Quoting is when you directly copy a selection from another author. You must phrase the information exactly as it appeared in the original work. You will need to use quotation marks (or block quoting) to note the beginning and the end of the direct quote. Also, be sure to include an in-text citation to the original work you consulted.
For more information on when to use paraphrasing or direct quotes, consult the sites listed below:
Helpful tools from APA: