This guide will help you navigate using APA 7th Edition. Start with this page to learn a little bit about citations and why they are necessary. When you have your sources, it's time to cite them! You will need to cite your sources within your paper (in-text citations) and create citations for your Reference List. Use the tabs on the left to view formatting and examples for many different types of sources.
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APA citation style consists of two pieces, in-text citations and the reference list.
The basic idea is that the reference list at the end of your paper will list full citation information, while the in-text citations throughout your paper will lead the reader to the reference list. This guide will go over both of these pieces in more detail (see tabs on the left).
Note: If required elements for either the reference list or in-text citations are missing, refer to Table 9.1 in the APA Style Guide for how to handle each situation.
In-text citations show the reader the exact source of the information in the essay or speech you are writing. The citations should match sources displayed in the reference list.
There are two types of citations used in APA style, parenthetical and narrative.
Author last name and date are enclosed in parentheses after a summary of cited information.
"..."(Author last name, date, p. number).
Citation information is incorporated into the sentence of cited information.
".... said Author (date, p. number).
Note: For more information, click on the In-Text Citations tab. There are also parenthetical and narrative citation examples for each reference example within the other tabs.
The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) has a general set of guidelines to follow as you document your sources within the reference list:
Start a new page at the end of your paper, and title it "References" (centered and in bold).
On this page, arrange your citations in alphabetical order by author, double space your references and use a "hanging indent" (after the first line of a citation indent 0.5 inch for the following lines of that citation). Repeat this format for each citation.
APA Style recommends that citations include these specific pieces of information:
3. Title of the work.
4. Source of the work.
A period (or other punctuation used) should follow each of the elements listed above. The exception is with DOIs and URLS (leave out period at end so as not to confuse it with the link).
APA Style guidelines and reference elements template will provide extra guidance as you document your list of sources.
Putting it all together: Last Name, First Name Initial. (Date). Title in italics. Source of Work.
Friedman, L., Kohan, J. (Writers) & Trim, M. (Director). (2013, July 11). I wasn't ready (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode].
In Kohan, J. (Executive Producer), Orange is the new black. Tilted Productions; Lionsgate Television.
Note: For more information click on the "References List" tab on the left. Also, below that are tabs that cover a variety of specific sources.